In the last few days there was an East Coast Low off the coast of NSW which caused amazingly high seas on our local beach. The bird (? Cormorant) at the top of this blog (or a relative of his/hers) had to adapt and take refuge on a lamp post. As educators we have to adapt to changing contexts. As the tsunami of students ramps up the numbers, teachers may have to take refuge on their own pedestal of the lecture platform instead of wandering with small groups on the rock platform. Or maybe distance requires online contact. The other thing we have to do is to adapt resources for the audience. Teaching in and for the GP context, for instance, is not the same as in the hospital.
It’s often the case that we may invite a cardiologist to talk to GP registrars about atrial fibrillation or a gastroenterologist about the meaning of liver function tests. GPs may attend talks given by geriatricians or workshops run by Palliative Care Physicians. In all these instances the listener needs to consider how the information is relevant to the GP context. Similarly, when teaching in the clinical setting it is good to refer to EBM but often the evidence has come from studies done in hospitals and in different patient populations. In the Welsh resource I referenced a month ago https://docs.wixstatic.com/ugd/bbd630_9068591ed32045ef9e10c04cdf3086a2.pdf
(about Care of The Elderly) there are some very good reminders about frail patients – but it is good to contextualise for the community context. To utilise it appropriately for GP registrars, the differences need to be addressed.
As an educator you might research the relative importance of certain presentations in hospital patients versus GP patients. As a supervisor you could suggest your registrar reads the document and then discuss how they think it might apply to general practice. Or you could be more specific and read it in relation to particular patients. The Welsh document has some Top Tips for geriatric medicine and on the first page are
Six Random Thoughts
Number five stated: For confused patient, a collateral history is vital – it is important to determine if the patient has dementia, delirium, or both.
This is a good starting point for a discussion on confusion in general practice. Delirium is less common in general practice – but on the other hand it is therefore likely to be missed, so the message is to think of it. Delirium is addressed on page 8 of the document. Discuss how it may present (especially quiet delirium). The other relevant point in general practice is to discuss the possibility of delirium with a patient (and family or even surgeon) when they are facing hospital admission. The GP can often identify when a patient has risk factors for development of delirium before they get there. Of course, in general practice it is worthwhile also having Depression in your DDx.
The document quotes a great definition of frailty
“Frailty is characterised by a vulnerability to stressors which would not affect non-frail people. These stressors can range from a bereavement to septicaemia. These stressors can lead to a rapid decline in both functional status, and in some cases physiological deterioration. This decline may be reversible, but in many cases the person will not return to their baseline.”
GPs see patients earlier along the Frailty spectrum and are in a position to act when these stressors occur and to check on the patient and initiate actions that may help reverse or slow down the decline. Putting in place relevant supports at the appropriate time can help re-balance the scales in their functional status. Ask registrars how frail they judge a particular patient to be (and why) and brain storm with them about what services might benefit a particular patient with multimorbidity and polypharmacy, a recent hospitalisation, a recent fall or bereavement.
One section notes some very useful dos and don’ts of de-prescribing
These are really worth discussing and a teaching session that involves reviewing a patient’s medications is always worthwhile. In general practice there is a smaller proportion of very frail patients and the clinical judgment required to make sound prescribing / de-prescribing decisions is challenging. At what point might you discuss stopping preventive medications? It will not necessarily depend on age. Because we know patients over time they can sometimes decline imperceptibly and the prescribing decisions may need to change. A registrar can cast new eyes over a patient so ask for their thoughts.
Often frailty scales are used more to keep patients out of hospital or decide if they need a palliative care approach or whether more resources are needed. My PhD was about developing a scale for general practice – to predict those at risk of frailty. The importance of this is that you might make a difference at a much earlier stage. The definition of frailty is very helpful but In the GP context I would suggest stating some of those hospital messages slightly differently. Some points to emphasise might be:
- A patient may become gradually more frail while you’re not looking
- Carer or relative observations are important
- What are some predictors you can pick up which might suggest a patient is more vulnerable -this might be information to pass on to the hospital when relevant
- How can help be obtained in your geographic area in a timely fashion rather than leaving it too late? (bearing in mind that knowledge of community systems is crucial to being an effective GP)
- Check for cognitive impairment
- Frailty is a continuum rather than an either/or and care is also continuing rather than a one-off.
Other topics are UTIs, falls and end PJ paralysis. For the GP, what are the strategies for encouraging and maintaining mobility in patients in the community? The last topic in the document is Advanced Care Planning. There are impressive figures given about death rates of in-patients and those in residential care so it is a very relevant issue. General practice has many more healthy, resilient coping patients. Not many of our patients die in a twelve month period (and meanwhile we are seeing babies, teenagers, young families etc, all requiring a different paradigm of care). Registrars, in particular, might have a patient load of which only a small percentage is over 65. However, we do see those transitioning to frailty, at risk of frailty. This makes it a challenging topic in general practice which is worth discussing.
It is always worth directing attention to up to date guidelines but, even then, it is worth a discussion about how you might need to adapt them in practice. Even if there is a screening tool which will work on data entered into the electronic health record it is important to discuss the relevant concepts and issues with the learners in the practice. There are protocols and there is clinical judgment.
And the document finishes with some book reading suggestions – always a good idea!